Tactically, the hoplites were very vulnerable to attacks by cavalry[citation needed], and the Athenians had no cavalry to defend the flanks. These changes greatly increased the number of casualties and the disruption of Greek society. The Greek navy, despite their lack of experience, also proved their worth holding back the Persian fleet whilst the army still held the pass. Lazenby, John F., The Peloponnesian War: A Military Study, London : Routledge, 2004. Argyraspis (GR): ‘silvershield’; title of Macedonian infantry guard which is probably identical with the hypaspistai (GR). Thermopylae provided the Greeks with time to arrange their defences, and they dug in across the Isthmus of Corinth, an impregnable position; although an evacuated Athens was thereby sacrificed to the advancing Persians. Metoopon (GR): front of a battle-line. Triakontoros (GR): thirty oared war ship. Exoomis (GR): sleeveless tunic fastened at the shoulders. Stratia (GR): army. Hetarieia (GR): company; (1) aristocratic warrior band; (2) dining association. Sarissa (GR): pike; Macedonian heavy thrusting spear used by both mounted troops and infantry. At least in the Archaic Period, the fragmentary nature of Ancient Greece, with many competing city-states, increased the frequency of conflict, but conversely limited the scale of warfare. Famously, Leonidas's men held the much larger Persian army at the pass (where their numbers were less of an advantage) for three days, the hoplites again proving their superiority. However, a united Greek army of c. 40,000 hoplites decisively defeated Mardonius at the Battle of Plataea, effectively ending the invasion. to the Present, New York, NY: Free Press, 1989. Hipparchia (GR): cavalry regiment. Every man had to serve at least two years in the army. The Greek 'Dark Age' drew to a close as a significant increase in population allowed urbanized culture to be restored, which Arstibara (PE): ‘spearbearers’; Persian guardsmen. Plagiophylax (GR): flank guard. Phylè (GR): tribe. This 'combined arms' approach was furthered by the extensive use of skirmishers, such as peltasts. ), Atlas of the Classical World, London: Nelson, 1959. Dekas (GR): 'unit of ten'; squad. Proknèmis (GR): greave. According to the map of Ancient Greece, what gulf separates the Balkan Peninsula and Pelopennesus? Klèrouchos (GR): fief holder; military settler; soldier granted land for his upkeep. The hoplite was an infantryman, the central element of warfare in Ancient Greece. Trièrarchos (GR): (1) captain commanding a trireme; (2) wealthy citizen providing a trireme at his cost. Thèrarchia (GR): elephant unit 'Hoplite' can be translated as 'man-at-arms'. The fractious nature of Ancient Greek society seems to have made continuous conflict on this larger scale inevitable. Speira (GR): military unit. To fight the enormous armies of the Achaemenid Empire was effectively beyond the capabilities of a single city-state. Kakos (GR): coward. They were a force to be reckoned with. Aspis koilè (GR): ‘hollow shield’; concave hoplite shield. Cartledge, Paul, The Spartans: The World of the Warrior-Heroes of Ancient Greece, from Utopia to Crisis and Collapse, New York, NY: Vintage, 2004. Traditionally, this has been dated to the 8th century BC, and attributed to Sparta; but more recent views suggest a later date, towards the 7th century BC[citation needed]. Pentèkontoros (GR): galley with fifty oarsmen on one level. Whatever the proximal causes of the war, it was in essence a conflict between Athens and Sparta for supremacy in Greece. Xenagia (GR): 'foreign legion'; military unit. Peltophoros (GR): 'shieldbearer'; soldier armed with light shield. Hammond, Nicholas G. L., A History of Greece to 322 B.C., Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959. Dathapatish (PE): 'commander of ten'; squad leader. Pritchett, Kendrick W., The Greek State at War, 5 Vols., Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1975–1991. However, Thebes lacked sufficient manpower and resources, and became overstretched. Akontion (GR): missile; projectile. Exeligmos Lakoonikos (GR): ‘Laconian counter-march’; manoeuvre in which the file-closer does an about-face on the spot and the file-leader leads his men past the file-closer. The eventual triumph of the Greeks was achieved by alliances of many city-states (the exact composition changing over time), allowing the pooling of resources and division of labour. Akrobolos (GR): skirmisher. Xiphidion (GR): (1) shortsword; (2) dagger. For instance, the Agrianes from Thrace were well-renowned peltasts, whilst Crete was famous for its archers. Doulos (GR): slave. Dekarchos (GR): ‘leader of ten’; junior officer; squad leader. Drepanon (GR): battle-scythe. The Athenian dominated Delian League of cities and islands extirpated Persian garrisons from Macedon and Thrace, before eventually freeing the Ionian cities from Persian rule. Naumachia (GR): sea battle. Because hoplites were all protected by their own shield and others’ shields and spears, they were relatively safe as long as the formation didn't break. from the Greek term for horse, hippios. Lambda (GR): Greek letter ‘L’ for Lakedaimoon painted on front of the Spartan shields. Knèmis (GR): greave. Enoomotia (GR): ‘sworn band’; military unit. Parke, Herbert W., Greek Mercenary Soldiers: From the Earliest Times to the Battle of Ipsus, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970. Porpax (GR): arm-band of a shield. At one point, the Greeks even attempted an invasion of Cyprus and Egypt (which proved disastrous), demonstrating a major legacy of the Persian Wars: warfare in Greece had moved beyond the seasonal squabbles between city-states, to coordinated international actions involving huge armies. Ancient Greek politics, philosophy, art and scientific achievements greatly influenced Western civilizations today. Pezhetairos (GR): ‘foot companion’; Macedonian heavy infantryman. Syzeuxis (GR): parallel formation. Along with the rise of the city-state evolved a brand new style of warfare and the emergence of the hoplite. Cavalry had always existed in Greek armies of the classical era but the cost of horses made it far more expensive than hoplite armor, limiting cavalrymen to nobles and the very wealthy (social class of hippeis). Symmachia (GR): alliance. [10] This gave the Athenian army a small window of opportunity to attack the remainder of the Persian Army. [clarification needed]. The early encounters, at Nemea and Coronea were typical engagements of hoplite phalanxes, resulting in Spartan victories. After burning Eretria, the Persians landed at Marathon. Toxotès (GR): archer. This obviously took advanced mathematics. Es cheiras (GR): ‘at grips’; in close combat. Anderson, J. K., Military Theory and Practice in the Age of Xenophon, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1970. Polemios (GR): enemy. Ancient Greek Culture The culture of Ancient Greece consists of many traditions, religious practices, music, and foods. Always start with the simple meaning. With this evolution in warfare, battles seem to have consisted mostly of the clash of hoplite phalanxes from the city-states in conflict. Akinakès (GR): Persian shortsword or dagger. Wandering tribes begin to settle in Greece: 1600 BCE: Mycenaean Greece: Bronze Age Greece was inhabited by the Mycenaean people. ), Warfare in the Ancient World, pp. One alternative to disrupting the harvest was to ravage the countryside by uprooting trees, burning houses and crops and killing all who were not safe behind the walls of the city. Machè (GR): fight; battle. Firstly, the Spartans permanently garrisoned a part of Attica, removing from Athenian control the silver mine which funded the war effort. Aretè (GR): virtue; valour; martial distinction. The revenge of the Persians was postponed 10 years by internal conflicts in the Persian Empire, until Darius's son Xerxes returned to Greece in 480 BC with a staggeringly large army (modern estimates suggest between 150,000–250,000 men). Trièrès (GR): trireme; oared warship with three levels of rowers. Euzonos (GR): light infantryman . Basileus (GR): king. The timing had to be very carefully arranged so that the invaders' enemy's harvest would be disrupted but the invaders' harvest would not be affected. Auloi (GR): double reed-flutes. Since there were no decisive land-battles in the Peloponnesian War, the presence or absence of these troops was unlikely to have affected the course of the war. To fight the enormous armies of the Achaemenid Empire was effectively beyond the capabilities of a single city-state. Mèlophoros (GR): ‘apple bearer’; a Persian guard using a round counterweight on the spear. Pelekophoros (GR): axe-man. The Greeks were very religious people. With revolutionary tactics, King Phillip II brought most of Greece under his sway, paving the way for the conquest of "the known world" by his son Alexander the Great. Answer: Sparta. It could throw 300 pound stones at walls and buildings Greek Military This is a hoplite, a Greek infantry soldier. 167–200. What Ancient Rome and Greece Can Teach Us About the Modern American Military U.S. Militia: equestrian term of military service. Hetairos (GR): companion; (1) aristocratic warrior; (2) Macedonian heavy cavalryman. Taxiarchès (GR): officer. Exeligmos Persikos (GR): ‘Persian counter-march’; manoeuvre in which the front-half and rear-half both counter-march to form up in a mirror-image of their original disposition and the battle-order remains in the same position. Embolon (GR): (1) wedge formation; (2) ship’s beak or ram. Lochos (GR): (1) military unit; (2) file of men. Petasos (GR): hat. Tactically, Phillip absorbed the lessons of centuries of warfare in Greece. Enoomotarchès (GR): commander of an enoomotia (GR); junior officer. There are a large number of religious festivals that were celebrated by the Greeks with great enthusiasm. 233–260. Aulètès (GR): flute-player. Chlamys (GR): cloak. Uprooting trees was especially effective given the Greek reliance on the olive crop and the long time it takes new olive trees to reach maturity. This alliance thus removed the constraints on the type of armed forces that the Greeks could use. Sekunda, Nick, Elite 66: The Spartan Army, Oxford: Osprey, 1998. Telamoon: carrying strap. [9] Darius thus sent his commanders Datis and Artaphernes to attack Attica, to punish Athens for her intransigence. Many of these would have been mercenary troops, hired from outlying regions of Greece. The Thebans acted with alacrity to establish a hegemony of their own over Greece. Polemarchos (GR): senior officer. Taxis: (1) battle order; (2) military unit; regiment. Skène (GR): tent; barracks building. Hippos (GR): horse. [1] Hoplites were the citizen-soldiers of the Ancient Greek City-states (except Spartans who were professional soldiers). The hoplite was a well-armed and armored citizen-soldier primarily drawn from the middle classes. Dathabam (PE):'unit of ten'; squad. It was an important Mycenaean centre in the middle to late Bronze Age and was a powerful city-state in the Classical period, participating in both the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars, reaching its peak of influence in the early 4th century BCE when it was the most powerful city in Greece. Hyparchos (GR): officer. Set-piece battles during this war proved indecisive and instead there was increased reliance on naval warfare, and strategies of attrition such as blockades and sieges. Hippakontistès (GR): mounted javelinman. Telos: military unit; used by Josephus for legion. Krypteia (GR): ‘secret service’; Spartan death squad for keeping the helots in check. At the decisive Battle of Leuctra (371 BC), the Thebans routed the allied army. Taka (PE): light shield. Baivarabam (PE): 'unit of ten thousand'; Persian military unit cf Greek term myrias. Peltè (GR): light shield. More Greek Architecture Greek Military This is a catapult, a Greek invention. Delbruck, Hans, Warfare in Antiquity, History of the Art of War, Volume 1, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1990. Although alliances between city-states were commonplace, the scale of this league was a novelty, and the first time that the Greeks had united in such a way to face an external threat. Sèmeiophoros (GR): standard-bearer. Evolving from armed bands led by a warrior leader, city militia of part-time soldiers, providing their own equipment and perhaps including all the citizens of the city-state or polis, began to move warfare away from the control of private individuals and into the realm of the state. Skolops (GR): palisade stake. Syssition (GR): ‘dining group’; Spartan military mess association. Gradually, and especially during the Peloponnesian war, cavalry became more important acquiring every role that cavalry could play, except perhaps frontal attack. Eirènè (GR): peace. Harmostès (GR): Spartan governor. The remaining Athenian fleet was thereby forced to confront the Spartans, and were decisively defeated. The peace treaty which ended the Peloponnesian War left Sparta as the de facto ruler of Greece (hegemon). Ilarchès (GR): ‘wing commander’; cavalry officer. Syntagmatarchès (GR): batallion commander. Dilochitès (GR): double-file leader; junior officer. The eventual triumph of the Greeks was achieved by alliances of many city-states (the exact composition changing over time), allowing the pooling of resources and division of labour. Anastrophè (GR): (1) back-turn; (2) wheeling manoeuvre. This allowed diversification of the allied armed forces, rather than simply mustering a very large hoplite army. Salpinktès (GR): trumpeter. Synthèmaton (GR): watchword. Gerrhon (GR): wicker shield. To counter the massive numbers of Persians, the Greek general Miltiades ordered the troops to be spread across an unusually wide front, leaving the centre of the Greek line undermanned. Amongst the allies therefore, Athens was able to form the core of a navy, whilst other cities, including Sparta, provided the army. Miles missicius: discharged soldier. Hieros lochos (GR): ‘Sacred band’; Theban elite formation composed of 150 couples of male lovers. Ultimately, Mantinea, and the preceding decade, severely weakened many Greek states, and left them divided and without the leadership of a dominant power. Following this victory, the Thebans first secured their power-base in Boeotia, before marching on Sparta. Spiculum (LA): javelin; late Roman pilum successor. Homozygos (GR): soldier from the same rank. Spartiatès (GR): Spartan member of syssition entitled to full citizen rights. This shield was known as hoopla.Then there are two other ranks which primarily do not come under the hierarchy but these ranks ran parallel to the main military hierarchy. To this end, the Greeks were able to lure the Persian fleet into the straits of Salamis; and, in a battleground where Persian numbers again counted for nothing, they won a decisive victory, justifying Themistocles' decision to build the Athenian fleet. Miles medicus: medical orderly; army doctor. The Greco-Persian Wars (499–448 BC) were the result of attempts by the Persian Emperor Darius the Great, and then his successor Xerxes I to subjugate Ancient Greece. Rawlings, Louis, "Alternative Agonies: Hoplite Martial and Combat Experiences beyond the Phalanx," in Hans van Wees, War and Violence in Ancient Greece, London and Swansea: Duckworth and the Classical Press of Wales, 2000, pp. Dimoiria (GR): ‘two quarters’; half-file. Amphippos (GR): cavalryman with two mounts. Ouriachos (GR): butt-spike. Most Greek Mythology was written by poets, like Homer, and as the spiritual sustenance for its people, dance communicated its wisdom and truth as effectively as words. Katoikia (GR): military colony. Homoios (GR): ‘peer’; Spartan enjoying full citizenship. These included javelin throwers (akontistai), stone throwers (lithovoloi) and slingers (sfendonitai) while archers (toxotai) were rare, mainly from Crete, or mercenary non-Greek tribes (as at the crucial battle of Plataea 479 B.C.) Panoplia (GR): war-gear; complete suit of military equipment. The word in question has an "eu-" prefix which simple means "good." Although by the end of the Theban hegemony the cities of southern Greece were severely weakened, they might have risen again had it not been for the ascent to power of the Macedonian kingdom in northern Greece. Miles legionis: soldier belonging to a legion; legionary. Telamoon (GR): carrying strap. 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